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Particularly significant symbols of Armenian culture include the statue of Mother Armenia; Dsidsernagabert, a shrine with an ever-burning fire in memory of the Armenian victims of the 1915 genocide; the ruined ancient monasteries; khatchkars engraved stone burial crosses; the ruins of Ani, the last capital of historic Armenia, which fell in 1045; and the emblem of the 1918 first republic of Armenia, its tricolor flag. Many prehistoric sites have been unearthed in and around Armenia, showing the existence of civilizations with advanced notions in agriculture, metallurgy, and industrial production, with diverse standardized manufacturing processes and pottery.The origins of the Armenians have long been subject to debate among historians, linguists, and archaeologists.In the 1980s, linguists drew attention to the existence of many similarities between the Indo-European and Semitic languages.The only way to explain the linguistic similarities between these two linguistic groups would be to geographically move the cradle of the Indo-European linguistic groups farther east, to the Armenian plateau.
Despite its small size, it was one of the most densely populated republics of the Soviet Union.
Surrounding Lake Sevan, it has an area of approximately 11,600 square miles (30,000 square kilometers).
Its border countries are Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan-Naxçivan, the Republic of Georgia, Iran, and Turkey.
About one million Armenians live in various European countries, and half a million Armenians live in the Middle East and Africa. When Armenia was under Russian and Soviet rule, Russian constituted the second official language.
The ethnic composition of Armenia's population is 93.3 percent Armenian; 1.5 percent Russian; 1.7 percent Kurdish; and 3.5 percent Assyrian, Greek, and other. The Armenian language is an Indo-European language.